Archaeologists date stone age artifacts by the depth of the layer. They may not have paid sufficient attention to one factor that could have shoved them deeper down: animals trampling over them. “Animals push human tools into ground�and back in time, study says,” was a subtitle of a report in National Geographic News. This factor could cause mis-dating of stone tools and other artifacts, “making them seem older than they really are�in some cases, thousands of years older,” experiments have demonstrated. The assumption has been, “The deeper the object, the older it is, generally speaking.” A team from Southern Methodist University tested that assumption by placing artifact replicas on the ground in India, having local herdsmen walk their livestock over them, letting the ground dry out, and then excavating the plot like it was a real archaeological site. “To our amazement,” lead author Metin Eren said, “the disturbance was much greater than we had anticipated.” The misdating is especially pronounced in wet ground. But it is precisely in wet areas where stone age people most likely settled. What’s more, archaeologists typically date carbonaceous material next to stone artifacts to corroborate the date, unaware that the two types of material may not have been contemporaneous. Eren believes that evidence of trampling can be detected by the random orientations of artifacts. In some cases, artifacts might even be pushed upward and yield younger ages. Sorting out what happened could be tricky, though. “Trampling could even create the illusion of ancient sites where none really existed,” Eren said. For example, “you could have artifacts washing into a valley from somewhere else and herds walk over them, pushing the artifacts into the ground. Is this a minor matter? Anthropologist Julien Riel-Salvatore of the University of Colorado Denver said, “Pretty much any open-air site located near a water source will potentially be very seriously affected by some of these conclusions.”Apparently no one ever tested the effects of trampling by animals before, even though some of them were aware of it. The follow-up question we should be asking is, what other factors are they not considering about the unobservable past? Don’t be so sure that archaeologists are able to separate trampled sites from non-trampled sites. A herd of elephants walking over a site might not leave it the same as a herd of wildebeest. Or a herd of supersaurus, either, but we say that just to irritate the Darwin dogmatists. The article said, “Scientists often date artifacts of the Stone Age, which began about two and a half million years ago, based on the depths at which the items are found: The deeper the object, the older it is, generally speaking.” The 2.5 million number is based on evolutionary reasoning – i.e., how long did it take monkey-men to come out of their trees, develop a taste for meat, reorganize their anatomy for long-distance running (11/18/2004), figure out it was easier to carve the meat with a stone than by hand, and decide cooking was women’s work, and getting impaled and trampled by mammoths was men’s work? How many times did a site get trampled before it dried up? Say the site was wet for just a million years – less than half the assumed age. Say that it got trampled once a month. That’s 12 million tramplings. OK, cut that in half, or a tenth – it’s still an outrageous amount of time for the artifacts to just sit there undisturbed by large animals, to say nothing of worms and burrowing creatures. Does the possibility dawn on you that many of these claimed ages, which no scientist ever experienced, could be flawed?(Visited 10 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The American Dairy Goat Association‘s 2018 National Show has been running this week at the Ohio State Fairgrounds, continuing through Saturday. Ohio Ag Net’s Lea Kimley caught up with the ADGA president Robin Saum from Fairfield County and Kirt Schnipke, of Ober-Boerd Dairy Goats, (who had the Reserve Grand Champion Oberhasli at the competition) to talk about the unique aspects of the dairy goat world. This among the largest national dairy goat shows ever with over 3,200 animals pre-registered and nine breeds represented.
SharePrint RelatedGroundspeak Weekly Mailer – May 4, 2011May 4, 2011In “News””The Geocaching Year in Review” A Geocaching.com Lost & Found VideoDecember 28, 2010In “Lost & Found Stories”Log your Will Attend for the Geocaching 20th Anniversary CelebrationJune 24, 2019In “Community” Happy New Year!2010 was an exciting year for geocaching! On March 8, we hit a huge milestone – over one million active geocaches listed on Geocaching.com. In the 10 months since, more than 260,000 geocaches have been added to the site.Last year also marked the 10th anniversary of geocaching and the 10th anniversary of Groundspeak. We celebrated these milestones with Groundspeak’s Lost & Found. The celebration launched the weekend of April 20-May 3 – the 10th anniversary of the first cache placement. Geocachers honored the occasion by hosting 10 Years! events around the world.As part of Lost & Found, we also wanted to discover some of the “lost” stories of geocaching. Our film crew traveled to capture the 33 amazing geocaching stories featured in the Lost & Found video series. Geocachers also submitted their stories on Geocaching.com.And since Geowoodstock was in our own backyard, Groundspeak hosted the Lost & Found Celebration just outside Groundspeak HQ. We had such a great time meeting thousands of you that we’re going to do it again in 2011 at the Groundspeak Block Party.We hit another milestone on 10-10-10, when the geocaching community broke a record. 78,313 separate Geocaching.com accounts logged a cache in a 24-hour period, blasting through the previous record of 56,654 accounts.So, what’s in store for 2011? We plan on continuing to add great features and functionality. Our goals for this year include improving the quality of the game and taking geocaching “beyond the box.” We’re looking forward to what we can accomplish over the next 12 months with your assistance. If you have an idea that might make geocaching even better in 2011, please post it here.Thank you for a wonderful 2010 and cheers to happy and healthy geocaching in 2011!Share with your Friends:More
Japan ex-PM Nakasone who boosted ties with US dies at 101 Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH LATEST STORIES Read Next Photo by Sherwin Vardeleon/INQUIREREven after having his best game in a Gilas Pilipinas uniform, June Mar Fajardo still defrayed the credit to the entire team.“I’m thankful to my teammates and to coach for the trust he gave me,” Fajardo said in Filipino after helping the Philippines hold off Chinese Taipei, 90-83, Monday night at Smart Araneta Coliseum.ADVERTISEMENT Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC “This game showed us that we need to follow our game plan. We relaxed in the first quarter, but it’s good that we’re able to recover because of our defense,” said Fajardo, whom national team coach Chot Reyes hailed as Gilas’ savior against a resilient Taipei side.READ: Reyes says Fajardo ‘saved’ Gilas vs TaipeiComing to his own in front of a capacity crowd, fans couldn’t help but fantasize how much Fajardo can still improve in the international stage.But just like how he approaches any game, the four-time PBA MVP would rather stick to the system than hunt for his own stats.“This good game gave me a bit of a pressure, but I know all I had to do is to trust the team, trust coach’s system, and trust each other,” he said.ADVERTISEMENT Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa Reyes says Fajardo ‘saved’ Gilas vs Taipei READ: Gilas Pilipinas rallies, fends off Chinese TaipeiBut there’s no denying that Fajardo deserved all the praise for his stellar effort for the Philippines, which went unbeaten through two games in the 2019 Fiba World Cup Asian qualifiers.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutThe Cebuano giant fired 17 points and collected eight rebounds, two assists, and two blocks in what was easily his best performance in a tournament of this magnitude. Fajardo, however, knows that the win came with its own set of lessons as Gilas’ resolve was tested after the team had to crawl back from an early 14-point deficit. Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City MOST READ Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. CPP denies ‘Ka Diego’ arrest caused ‘mass panic’ among S. Tagalog NPA View comments Cayetano: 4 social media groups behind SEA Games ‘sabotage’ Stronger peso trims PH debt value to P7.9 trillion QC cops nab robbery gang leader, cohort
TagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Ciaran Clark pondered quitting Newcastleby Paul Vegas13 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveNewcastle United defender Ciaran Clark sought talks with manager Steve Bruce over his future in the summer.The Evening Chronicle says the centre-back spoke to Bruce after interest was shown in the Ireland defender. Crystal Palace were among the sides who looked at Clark, who made his first start of the season on Sunday against Manchester United. But Bruce told he that he wanted to “assess” his options, and utilised Clark – who has been “waiting for his chance”.
It’s all just so… grown-up, a categorization Lavigne had given a hard pass to as recently as her last album, 2013’s Avril Lavigne, where she insisted, in Peter Pan bangers like “Seventeen” and “Rock N Roll,” that we “still love it.” (“It” presumably referring to Lavigne’s penchant for lyrics about spontaneous day drinking.) Between then and the September drop of “Head Above Water,” we heard from Lavigne only a handful of times: when she popped up on Good Morning America in summer 2015 to say that she had been diagnosed with Lyme disease, when she got divorced from Nickelback frontman Chad Kroeger later that year and when, in between those dual bummers, Taylor Swift brought her out in San Diego as part of the 1989 World Tour’s parade of admirable women, to perform her then-13-year-old debut single, “Complicated.” Lavigne says that at one point, she thought, Oh, I guess I’m done with making music. Avril Lavigne photographed on Aug. 13, 2018 in Los Angeles. Lavigne wears a Paul Smith sweater and What Katie Did tights. (David Needleman) Twitter The motherfucking princess is in her motherfucking castle.The princess is Avril Lavigne, who anointed herself on her 2007 No. 1 single “Girlfriend.” The castle — a Tudor home in an illustriously ZIP-coded L.A. neighborhood — is the only thing Lavigne has presided over since a tour that ended in 2014.A few weeks before the release of “Head Above Water,” her first single in four-and-a-half years, Lavigne sits under the cathedral-high ceiling of her home studio. It is the room where, over the course of her public absence, she recorded much of the album she plans to release in early 2019. Advertisement Advertisement Advertisement Facebook LEAVE A REPLY Cancel replyLog in to leave a comment Lavigne’s many songs about partying — and the Jack Daniel’s lawn jockey who greeted me at the door — suggested that we’d wind up drinking whiskey, or at least the rosé her publicist suggested I bring. (Avril Lavigne drinks rosé?) But Lavigne is sipping Emergen-C-spiked electrolyte water, combating seasonal allergies. From her seat on a massive gray sectional (Avril Lavigne owns a sectional?), she reveals that she painted much of the art displayed in the expansive foyer and shows me the pink devotional journal gifted to her by her mother. Under the daily prayers topping each page are guitar tabs and ambitious to-do lists written in Lavigne’s bubbly handwriting: Complete album. Choose single. Shoot video. Dentist. Login/Register With:
LEAVE A REPLY Cancel replyLog in to leave a comment Twitter Facebook Advertisement Advertisement WHY YVR AIRPORT DESPERATELY WANTS TO FIND RYAN REYNOLDSVancouver Airport president and CEO Craig Richmond is obsessed with finding Ryan Reynolds – and he needs some help.Richmond took some time away from running Canada’s second busiest airport to show off his sketch comedy chops in the airport’s latest social media campaign, #FindingRyan, posted on YVR’s Twitter page. READ MOREYVR WANTS RYAN REYNOLDS TO BE ITS NEW CELEBRITY AMBASSADOR (VIDEO)“We need some help.”It’s a phrase you might not expect from the CEO of an airport that was voted #1 in North America, recently, but it’s exactly what comes out of YVR CEO Craig Richmond’s mouth in the opening sequence of a new video, released by the organization this week. READ MOREVANCOUVER AIRPORT IS TRYING TO MAKE RYAN REYNOLDS THEIR CELEBRITY AMBASSADOR IN HILARIOUS NEW CAMPAIGN (VIDEO)Their video is hilarious!Ryan Reynolds has done some pretty random things over the years and the Vancouver International Airport is now trying to use that to their advantage. One of Canada’s largest airports has been trying to gain the attention of Reynolds in order to offer him a position with their company. Specifically, the Vancouver International Airport wants Ryan Reynolds to be their celebrity ambassador. READ MORE Advertisement It’s been 24 hours and still no sign of Ryan Reynolds… Quote tweet this and tag @VancityReynolds and be entered to win a $2500 travel voucher. Help us spread the word – YVR is a community-based, not-for-profit organization! #FindingRyan pic.twitter.com/JuiM1WD0sk— Vancouver Airport (@yvrairport) July 16, 2019 Login/Register With: Ryan Reynolds (Photo by MATTHEW BROOKES) #FINDINGRYAN: VANCOUVER AIRPORT WANTS RYAN REYNOLDS TO BE ITS AMBASSADORThe Vancouver airport’s CEO says YVR’s brand needs some star power and insists there’s only one person who’s right for the job.A nearly three-minute clip posted to Twitter shows https://twitter.com/yvrairport/status/1151212973043544064 airport CEO Craig Richmond in a meeting with staff called “YVR Celebrity Ambassador.”“We need star power. We need a celebrity ambassador, somebody who can get our message out,” Richmond says in the video. READ MORE
LINCOLN, Neb. – Nebraska regulators approved an alternative route Monday for the proposed Keystone XL pipeline. It was the last major regulatory hurdle facing project operator TransCanada Corp., though opponents say another round of federal approval may now be needed.The Nebraska Public Service Commission’s ruling was on the Nebraska route TransCanada has proposed to complete the $8 billion, 1,179-mile (1,897-kilometre) pipeline to deliver oil from Alberta, Canada, to Texas Gulf Coast refineries. The proposed Keystone XL route would cross parts of Montana, South Dakota and most of Nebraska to Steele City, Nebraska.The long-delayed project was rejected by President Barack Obama in 2015, citing concerns about carbon pollution. President Donald Trump revived it in March, approving a permit.The project has faced a barrage of criticism from environmental activists and some landowners for nearly a decade.Here are some things to know about the fight:___WHAT OPTIONS DID THE COMMISSION HAVE?The five-member Nebraska Public Service Commission was forbidden by law from factoring pipeline safety or the risk of spills into its decision because pipeline safety is a federal responsibility. So, it couldn’t take into account a spill of 210,000 gallons (790,000 litres) of oil on the existing Keystone pipeline in South Dakota announced on Thursday.The simplest choice was a yes-or-no vote on TransCanada’s “preferred route” through a dozen Nebraska counties. The commission had the option of including major caveats that would add years to the project’s timetable.Commissioners decided to approve an alternative route that would run farther north than TransCanada’s preferred route. Company officials have said their preferred route causes the least amount of disruption.No matter what the commission decided, any group that presented arguments at an August hearing could appeal the decision to a state district court. The case would likely end up before the Nebraska Supreme Court.The proposed Keystone XL would expand the existing Keystone pipeline, which went into service in July 2010. The current pipeline network runs south through North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas and extends east into Missouri and Illinois.___WHAT HAPPENS AFTER THE DECISION?The commission’s vote could play a pivotal role in whether TransCanada moves ahead with the pipeline. After years of lobbying for the project, TransCanada acknowledged in a July conference call that executives won’t decide until late November or early December whether to begin construction.TransCanada spokesman Matthew John reiterated that timeline last week, ahead of the Monday vote.“We’re going through the process with every intention to get this project built,” John said on Wednesday. “But there are factors that we need to work out prior to making that decision,” including regulatory approval in Nebraska.John said the company also needs to finalize its contracts with shippers that want to use the pipeline.TransCanada has been working to line up long-term contracts for the pipeline, which can carry an estimated 830,000 barrels a day. The company has not announced the results of its open season bidding process, which ended Oct. 26.___WILL THERE BE PROTESTS IF THE COMMISSION APPROVES THE PIPELINE?Opponents in August vowed to stage mass protests against the pipeline if Nebraska regulators approve it, but say they will exhaust legal options first.Pipeline opponents have lined parts of the proposed route with obstacles, including trees, solar panels, sacred corn from the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska and a barn powered by renewable energy. Some opponents may try to physically block construction and have likened their resistance to the activists who protested the Dakota Access Pipeline in Standing Rock, North Dakota.___IS KEYSTONE XL STILL FEASIBLE?Despite low oil prices and repeated delays, TransCanada has a strong financial incentive to keep pursuing the pipeline, said Zachary Rogers, a Houston-based analyst for Wood Mackenzie, an energy research and consulting firm.Rogers said Western Canadian producers have been forced to ship their product by train, which is more expensive than a pipeline, and Keystone XL would reduce costs and improve their bottom line.At the same time, Texas refineries face uncertainty because of political instability in Venezuela, one of their top oil sources, and a slowdown in Mexican production.“Western Canada has been held captive by geography and hasn’t been able to cheaply access the markets,” Rogers said last week. “Any opportunity for them to get better access will buoy their margins.”___Follow Grant Schulte on Twitter at https://twitter.com/GrantSchulte___Sign up for the AP’s weekly newsletter showcasing our best reporting from the Midwest and Texas: http://apne.ws/2u1RMfv
The CEOs of three of Canada’s major grocery chains doubled down on their expectation that food prices will soon rise at their stores.Recent cost pressures on the industry, including rising minimum wages in some provinces, increased fuel and transportation costs and an ongoing trade war with the U.S., will soon result in some price inflation, said the chief executives of Metro Inc., Loblaw Companies Ltd. and Empire Co. Tuesday at Scotiabank’s back-to-school conference in Toronto.Metro CEO Eric La Fleche said consumers should eventually see a return to more normal inflation levels.“Exactly when and how — it’s all about competitive dynamics. Everybody is competitive. Nobody wants to lose any share. So, let’s see how things play out,” he said.Metro is starting to see some price inflation already, La Fleche said.He explained that the cost pressures have been building over the past year, beginning with Ontario’s minimum wage hike from $11.60 to $14 an hour on Jan. 1, followed by rising fuel and transportation costs.Then came the Canadian government’s retaliatory tariffs on July 1 on a wide range of American products, including coffee, maple syrup, salad dressing and other foods.“Now, we’re having a — what I would describe it as — a tsunami of tariff-related request for cost increases from our supplier partners,” said Michael Medline, Empire’s CEO.The company, which is the parent to grocery chain Sobeys Inc., held off on raising prices for some time, he said, but is now reviewing these tariff-related costs.Empire will pass the extra costs on to consumers where it makes sense in the market, he said, adding it will be careful not to give away any market share.“We don’t like to pass on cost, but there’s no way you can avoid it with the inflationary pressures that we are now seeing.”Price increases are likely to be moderate in a historical sense, said Loblaw CEO Galen Weston.He predicted food inflation of one- to 1.5-per cent, which he said is in the normal range as opposed to higher range in the five to six per cent level.“We don’t yet see it moving into the mid-single digit levels… We don’t think it is likely to do that.”The chief executives also outlined their respective plans to grow their e-commerce business, specifically home delivery. Canada’s grocers have been slow to offer delivery, but ramped up their efforts after Amazon acquired Whole Foods Market last year.Metro already offers home delivery from seven stores in Quebec, which serves about 60 per cent of the province’s population, said La Fleche.It will start offering the service in Ontario in 2019, he said, but did not provide details on specific locations.The company relies on its existing assets to fulfil orders rather than partnering with a third-party like its competitors have chosen to do.“We’re going to e-commerce with a prudent approach,” said La Fleche, adding the company is scaling up and the company may consider using a dedicated facility if it reaches a certain level — but it’s not there yet.Empire, on the other hand, decided to partner with British firm Ocado to build a fulfillment centre in the Greater Toronto Area that will be fully operational by the spring of 2020. The centre will house Ocado’s signature robotics that can fulfil customer orders within minutes.Empire offers home delivery in Quebec and learned that their solution there is not scalable, Medline said, adding the company is excited that Ocado’s solution eliminates some logistical issues and is profitable.Loblaw also partnered with another company to offer home delivery, opting for California-based Instacart, but chose to do so in a quicker fashion. Customers in 17 cities can now use the Instacart app to order groceries for delivery from Loblaw.“Our view today is that rapid expansion and customer acquisition is the second most important thing to do in the first innings of the e-commerce online grocery world,” Weston said.Companies in this story: (TSX:MRU) (TSX:EMP) (TSX:L)Note to readers: A previous version of this story incorrectly stated that Empire Co. is not reviewing the tariff-related costs.
New Delhi: Domestic steel giant SAIL Wednesday said it has supplied special quality steel for India’s indigenous artillery gun ‘Dhanush’. Special quality forging steel was supplied from the PSU’s Durgapur-based Alloy Steels Plant. “Steel Authority of India supplied steel for India’s first indigenous and biggest artillery gun Dhanush, which was inducted into Indian Army on April 8, 2019,” the company said in a statement. With this, SAIL has once again established its commitment to fulfilling the Also Read – Thermal coal import may surpass 200 MT this fiscalcountry’s requirement and strengthening India’s defence systems, it said. Dhanush has been designed and developed by the Gun Factory in Jabalpur where it was handed over to the Indian Army. SAIL steel has been used in the country’s various defence programmes, including INS Vikrant, INS Kiltan, INS Kamorta, MBT Arju etc, it added. “SAIL is ready to meet and supply special grade steels for technical requirement of Indian’s defence programmes,” Chairman Anil Kumar Chaudhary said. The government owns about 75 per cent stake in SAIL. Its crude steel output grew over 8 per cent to 16.3 million tonne (MT) in the just concluded fiscal.